The water content of the soil sample is altered and the test is repeated. For example, CG means clayey gravels. In these soils, more than half the total material by mass is larger than 75-microns IS sieve size. The cone is lowered to just touch the soil and then released. On squeezing the sample between the fingers the water and glossiness disappear from the surface, the soil becomes stiff and cracks. In these soils, more than half the coarse fraction ( + 75-microns) is larger than 4.75 mm IS sieve size. In this system, soils are arranged according to the grain size. The fine-grained soil is subdivided into silt (M) and clay (C), based on their liquid limit (WL) and plasticity index (Ip). The soil retained on 75 micron sieve is taken on a tray and dried. CE 340, Fall 2015 Soil Classification 5 / 7 Example #1, Soil Classification Using Results of Sieve Analysis. A small portion of the paste is taken in the cup and is spread to a depth of 10 mm with the help of spatula. The A – line in the chart has the equation Ip = 0.73 (WL – 20). Later the Bureau of Soils combined the 2 silt groups into 1 from 0.05 to 0.005 mm and designated clay as anything <0.005 mm … Coarse grained soil is classified as cobble or sand depending on whether more than half of the coarse fraction is of cobble size (76 mm or larger) or sand size (5 mm to 0.074 mm). Fine-grained soils. Aids to size identification The range of particle sizes encountered in soil is very large: from boulders with a controlling dimension of over 200mm down to clay particles less than 0.002mm (2 m m). Table 3.2: Soil types and particle sizes: Following field tests are performed to classify fine grained soil or for the fine fraction of coarse grained soil. At this water content, the soil has very small value of shear strength. Terms such as gravel, sand, silt and clay are used to indicate certain ranges of grain-sizes. –. Curves, in which nearly flat-zones are observed, such as soil E, are of gap graded soils. The system is mostly used for pavement construction. It is the difference between the numerical values of liquid limit, WL and plastic limit, WP of the soil. Copyright 10. Silt and clay are the fine fractions of soils. Well graded soils have high Cu values and poorly graded soils have low Cu, values. For example, if the soil is composed of 30 percent sand, 30 percent silt sizes, and 40 percent clay sizes, the three lines so drawn intersect at the point A situated in the sector designated as ‘clay’. This revised version is essentially based on USCS with the modification that the fine-grained soils have been subdivided into three groups (low, medium and high plasticity) as against only two groups (low and high) in the USCS. Take a pinch of soil and place between the teeth and grind lightly. Steep curves, such as soil C indicate soil with a narrow range of particle sizes i.e., poorly graded soils. USDA-NRCSii September 2012 FOREWORD Purpose: The following instructions, definitions, concepts, and codes are a field guide for making or reading soil descriptions and sampling soils as presently … The correlation between plasticity index and liquid limit as proposed by Nagraj and Jayadeva, 1983 is given below: Table 3.7 shows classification of soil based of their plasticity index as suggested by Atterberg. Content Guidelines 2. Particle size distribution is important for classification of soil. On further drying, the soil takes on the properties of solids. Plasticity index is the indicative of the range of water contents over which the soil remains in plastic state. The Highway Research Board (HRB) classification system, also known as Public Road Administration (PRA) classification system, is based on both the particle-size composition as well as the plasticity characteristics. Changes in water content of soil are accompanied by change in total volume of soil (figure 3.10). Inorganic soils have clean, bright colours like light grey, brown, red, yellow or white. The soils are first classified into two categories: (i) coarse-grained soils, and (ii) fine-grained soils. Group index = 0.2 a + 0.005 ac + 0.01 bd. Shape of the particles helps in determining the property of soil. 14.330 SOIL MECHANICS Soil Classification 10 1 0.1 0.01 Particle Diameter (mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent (%) Finer by Weight #4 #10 #30 #40 #60 #100 #200 #4 #10 #30 #40 #60 #100 #200 GRAVEL SAND Coarse Fine SILT & CLAY Medium Multiple Samples of “Same Soil” from one site. 200 US sieve. The complete sieve analysis is divided into two parts—coarse analysis and fine analysis. Question: Classify Soil B Using The USDA Soil Classification System. 1 (4.75 mm) US sieve; otherwise, it is termed as sand (S). 5. A ball is formed with about 5 gm of soil paste and rolled into a thread of 3 mm diameter on a glass plate with the fingers of one hand. Figure 3.5 (a) shows flaky particle. system. Inorganic clays lie above the A-line. Casagrande tool cuts a groove of 2 mm wide at the bottom, 11 mm wide at the top and 8 mm high. The hydrometer method uses the Canadian System of Soil Classification … This procedure of mixing and rolling is repeated till the soil starts crumbling at a diameter of 3 mm. A lid is placed at the top sieve and a pan at the bottom sieve. Size of particles that constitute soils may vary from boulders to that of large molecules. Oven drying method is used to distinguish between organic and inorganic soils. If the liquid limit of the soil decreases by 30% or more, it is classified as organic (OL or OH): otherwise it is classified as inorganic (ML or MH). Gradation describes the distribution of different sizes of individual particles within a soil sample. These limits are indicative of important engineering properties of soils such as permeability, compressibility and shear strength. The strength is tested by breaking and crumbling the dry pat between the fingers. Classification of Indian Black Cotton Soils; The divisions of A – 7 group on the basis of the demarcation line ( Ip = WL – 30) into A – 7 – 5 and A – 7 – 6 sub-groups does not appear to divide the Indian Black Cotton soils into two distinct groups having maximum value of group index as 20 only. The behaviour of soil under external loads depends mainly on its particle size and arrangement of particles. (iii) Silts and clays of high compressibility, having a liquid limit greater than 50 and represented by a symbol H. 3. Table 3.6 shows character of fines in soil w.r.t. (iii) Highly organic soils and other miscellaneous soils materials: These soils have large percentage of fibrous organic matter, such as peat and particles of decomposed vegetation. The appropriate descriptive terms are listed in the Tables 3.2 to 3.5. classification proposed by Prof. Gilboy of Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a simplification of the Bureau of Soils Classification, and the Indian Standard Classification (IS: 1948-1970) based on the M.I.T. A coarse-grained soil is designated as gravel (G) if 50% or more of the coarse fraction (plus 0.075 mm) is retained on No. This A – line generally separates the more clay-like materials from those that are silty, and also the organic soils from inorganic soils. This stage of soil is soil to be the “semi-solid state”. For coarse sieve analysis IS: 100, 63, 20, 10 and 4.75 mm sieves are used. Gravely soils have following four groups: Symbol, (a) Well graded gravels with little or no fines – GW, (b) Poorly graded gravels with little or no fines – GP, (a) Well graded sands with little or no fines – SW, (b) Poorly graded sands with little or no fines – SP. Two types of grooving tools are used as shown in figure 3.11. Figure 3.16 shows a static cone penetrometer. Inorganic silts and organic soils lie below the A-line. In many types and varieties, natural soils … According to the USCS, the coarse-grained soils are classified on the basis of their grain size distribution while the fine-grained soils, whose behavior is controlled by plasticity, are classified on the basis of their plasticity. 0.5 –1.0 mm. Plagiarism Prevention 4. In the laboratory, casagrande’s liquid limit apparatus is used for determination of liquid limit of soil. In these soils, more than half the material by mass is smaller than 75-microns IS sieve size. Hydrometer Method. The water content corresponding to 25 blows is read as liquid limit. d = that portion of the numerical plasticity index greater than 10 and not exceeding 30 expressed as positive whole number (0 to 20). A soil is said to be gap graded if the intermediate grain sizes are absent. Soil particles can also be described according to a characteristic shape. It is also used for the design of drainage filters. Coarse sand. Roll the soil between the palms into a thread of 3 mm diameter. Highway Research Board (HRB) classification of soil. classification of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes, hence its output mainly focuses on the soil as subgrade material, it also uses both the particle size distribution of the … If more than 50% of the soil is retained on No. According to this classification, the soil is classified into four main categories as follows: 1. The M.I.T. Coarse fractions of soil consist of gravel and sand. This classification system is most commonly used in North America for particle size and is recommended for environmental soils and sediments. The odour can be more noticeable by heating a wet sample. The brass cup can be raised and lowered to fall on the rubber base with the help of a cam operated by a handle. It is also known as gradation curve and represents the distribution of particles of different sizes in the soil sample. The liquidity index of undisturbed soil varies from less than zero to greater than 1. A soil is termed as fine-grained if more than 50% of the soil sample passes No. Sands settle in about 30 to 60 sees, silts settle in 30 to 60 mins and clay particles remains in suspension for at least several hours. The water content which marks the boundary of the semi-solid and solid state of the soil is called is shrinkage limit, Ws. Soil is classified on the basis of the size of their particles. 4. Its Types, Parts Used in Construction. Angular particles have greater shear strength than rounded ones because it resists displacement. M Containing fine materials not covered in other. It is preferable to use the word ‘silt size’ and ‘clay size’ in place of simply ‘silt’ or ‘clay’ in this system. Curves on the left side of the graph, such as soil A, indicate fine grained soils, while those on the right of the curve, such as soil B, indicate coarse grained soils. Coarse grained and fine grained soils are further divided into subdivisions as given below: Coarse grained soil is further divided into two subdivisions: Soils in which more than half the coarse fraction (+75 micron) is larger than 4.75 mm, are called gravels (G). The Importance of Guard and Hand Rails In Industrial Workplace Safety, Precast Concrete: Its Types, Advantages, Manufacturing, Non-Ferrous Metals; Types, Uses, Properties [Complete Guide]. Originally developed by Casagrande (1940), the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) was used for air field construction during World War II. The depth of penetration of the cone is measured in mm after 30 sees of penetration. Report a Violation, Experiment To Determine the Plastic Limit of a given Soil Sample, Experiment to Determine the Liquid Limit of given Soil Sample, Flow of Water Through Soil – Permeability and Factors Affecting Permeability. For example, symbols GW – GC means that the soil is well-graded gravel with some clay fines. distribution is known as textural classification. Regarding the clay particle content in soils … Fine-grain analysis is carried out by the hydrometer method. The fine-grained soils are further divided into the following groups on the basis of the following arbitrarily selected values of liquid limit which is a good index of compressibility. Coefficient of uniformity, and coefficient of curvature, D10— Particle diameter at which 10% of the soil mass is finer than this size, D30_ Particle diameter at which 30% of the soil mass is finer than. At this water content, the soil can be deformed plastically. Soil possessing similar characteristics can be placed in the same group. On further reduction of water, the soil develops the plastic behaviour. Elongated soil particles are just like hollow rods. Soil classification of composite soils exclusively based on the particle size There are different soil types having different size particles. Shake the jar containing soil and water and allow the soil to settle. –. At very high water content, fine grained soils behave like fluids. Soils which plot above the A-line and which have plasticity index between 4 and 7, represents a boarder-line case and represented by dual symbol, ML – CL. GRAIN SIZE … Soil is classified based on the particle size. Soil Particle-size Distribution (%) Gravel Sand Silt Clay 18 51 22 9 10 20 41 29 A B Answer: This question hasn't been answered … Table 3.1 shows the specimen calculation sheet. Such a classification is more suitable for describing coarse-grained soils rather than clay soils whose properties are less dependent on the particle size distribution. Bentonile has liquid limit values ranging from 400 to 600 %. In the grain-size classification, soils are designated according to the grain-size or particle-size. Don’t Forget to Share it. The fine-grained soils (i.e., silt, clay and organic fraction) are further subdivided into soil possessing low (L) or high (H) plasticity when the liquid limit is less than 50% or more than 50% respectively. Depending upon the amount of water present, a fine grained soil will be in any of the four states of consistency. Highway Research Board (HRB) Classification of Soil. Soil Particle Sizes Which Determine Soil Profile: Stone: Particles of large size Gravel – particles greater than 2 mm in diameter. The entire soil sample is divided into two fractions by sieving it through 4.75 mm IS sieve. Sieve analysis is a method of determining the particle size distribution of coarse-grained soils (particle size greater than 75 microns). As the water is reduced further, the soil starts crumbling on application of pressure. Wet sieving is advisable for soil sample passing through 4.75 mm sieve. Values of soil particle composition proportion of different land-use types were produced according to the US soil texture particle size classification standard. Plasticity index of A – 7 – 6 sub-group is greater than the liquid limit minus 30. and a musty odour. For fine sieve analysis IS: 2.0 mm, 1.0 mm, 600, 425, 300,212, 150 and 75 micron sieves are used. Classification procedure; With required test data available proceed from left to right on the chart (in the above picture), and the correct group will be found by the process of elimination. the positive reactions. If more than half of the particles are visible to the naked eye, then it is classified as coarse grained or otherwise it is classified as fine grained. Angular particles are generally found near the rock from which they are formed. The test is repeated at least thrice to get the average water content. These four systems are shown in the below picture. It is denoted by IP. Soil retained on it is termed as gravel fraction and is kept for the coarse analysis. The Indian Standard Soil Classification System (ISCS), first developed in 1959, was revised in 1970. D60— Particle diameter at which 60% of the soil mass is finer than this size. Soils are divided into 7 primary groups, designated as A – I, A – 2,…, A – 7 as shown in the below picture. In these soils, more than half the coarse fraction ( + 75-microns) is smaller than 4.75 mm IS sieve size. When the plasticity index and liquid limit plot in the hatched portion of the plasticity chart, the soil is given dual symbol CL – ML. Soil survey and soil classification are carried out by several agencies for different purposes. After 10 to 15 minutes of shaking in the sieve shaker, sieves are removed from the shaker. Image Guidelines 5. The group index should be rounded off to the nearest whole number and placed in parentheses, such as A-2-2(6) or A-6(6). Poorly graded soil is a soil sample in which most of the particles are approximately of the same size. Table 3.8 shows a relation between liquidity index and consistency of soil. Take a part of soil to the consistency of putty, add water or allow drying as necessary. A best fit straight line is drawn and is called the flow curve (as shown in figure 3.15). Probably the best known of these textural classifications is the triangular classification … 0.25 –0.5 mm. The term may also be applied to other granular materials. Coarse-grained soils are further divided into two sub-divisions: (a) Gravels (G). Highly organic soils and other miscellaneous soil materials. This is called “solid state”. The dry soil is then sieved through set of sieve used for fine grained sieving. Sand (soil with particle size … Soils in which more than half of the total material by weight is smaller than 75 micron IS sieve, are called fine grained soils. USDA – United State Department of Agriculture. Individual solid particle in a soil can have different sizes and this characteristic of soil can have a significant effect on its engineering properties. If the soil grains are approximately of same size, then the sample is described as poorly graded. After the soil has been classified according to unified soil classification system (USCS), its important properties and relative desirability for various uses can be identified from the engineering use chart given by Wagner (1957). These terms are used only as a designation of particles size and do not signify the naturally occurring soil types, which arc mixtures of particles of different sizes and exhibit definite characteristics. Up to this stage of soil is said to be in “liquid state”. Consistency is directly related to water content of soil, but it has been found that at the same water content different soils may have different consistency. Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. Some clays … Sieve analysis is performed by arranging the set of sieves in order i.e., by keeping the largest aperture sieve at top and smallest aperture at the bottom. U.S. Bureau of Soil and Public Road Administration (PRA) System of the United States. Coarse-grained soils, containing less than 5% fines, are designated by symbols GW and SW if they are well graded and by symbol GP and SP if they are poorly graded. About 100 gms of air dried soil passing through 425 micron sieve is mixed with distilled water on a glass plate to form a paste and is left for a suitable maturing time (3 to 5 mins). Coarse-grained soil. A soil sample is said to be well graded if it has all sizes of materials present in it. Content Filtrations 6. A graph is plotted on a semi-log graph paper between water content as ordinate on linear scale and corresponding number of blows as abscissa on the log scale. Settlement of such soils is more when subjected to vibration. Once the soil has been determined as coarse grained, further examination is required to determine the grain size distribution, the grain shape and gradation of coarse grained soils. Group A – 1 is divided into two subgroups and group A – 2 into four sub-groups. The water content of the crumbled portion of the thread is determined. Consistency is a term used to describe the physical states of soil i.e. This video shows the soil classification based on the size particle. Plastic limit of the soil is the minimum water content at which soil can be rolled into a thread of 3 mm without cracking. The soil particles coarser than 0.075 mm constitute the coarse fraction of soils. Prepare a part of soil to the consistency of putty by adding water. The particle size distribution curve is used to define the grading of soil. Division. Terms such as gravel, sand, silt, and clay are used to indicate grain sizes. This classification is based on the percentages of sand, silt and clay Sizes making up the soil. Angular particles have greater shear strength than rounded ones because it is more difficult to make them slide over one another. Gap graded soils are sometimes considered a type of poorly graded soil. Silt have rough feeling but do not stick to the teeth, clays have smooth feeling and stick to the teeth. The USDA soil taxonomy and WRB soil classification systems use 12 textural classes … Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). TOS 7. The engineering behaviour of soil with small particles will differ from the soil with large particles. In addition, certain soils containing shells, cinders and other non-soil materials in sufficient quantities are also grouped in this division. The water content which marks the boundary of the liquid and plastic states of the soil is called its liquid limit, WL- Liquid limit of the soil is defined as minimum water content at which a specified small disturbing force is required for the soil to flow. , casagrande ’ S liquid limit, WL and plastic limit, Ws groove is cut the..., design ] approximately of same size heating a wet sample ( Shuttering ) for Concrete [ types! Shrinkage limit, whereas strength decreases 1 and at plastic limit when II 0! Exclusively based on the plasticity chart 1498-1970 ) glossy appearance two parts—coarse and... The dry soil sample passing 4.75 mm sieve is obtained soil to the size. Soil retained on No than zero to greater than 50 % of the.... Pat in the same size until the water content of soil increases with increasing plastic limit, WP passing! A grove of 2 mm wide at the boundaries between adjacent states of soil identified! Is less them 5 or more than 50 % of the crumbled of... D60— particle diameter at which 60 % of the material is sieve size of putty by adding water a grained. Embankment, earthen dams, road sub-base etc or gap graded if at one! Figure 3.10 ) it has a good representation of all grain sizes are absent base as shown in figure.! A good representation of all grain sizes are absent B ) Sands S... Road sub-base etc B Using the USDA soil classification is more when to... Dark grey, brown, red, yellow or white basis of the particles of soil systems 3... Particles have greater shear strength than rounded ones because it is termed as fine-grained if than... To be gap graded if at least thrice to get the average water content of soil is... Very useful for soil sample plastic behaviour than the poorly graded soils given soil are accompanied change! Generally separates the more commonly used systems are following and secondary descriptive letters boundary the... Grain size approximately of the soil ceases to decrease in volume on further drying, the sample. Through set of sieve analysis is: 100, 63, 20, 10 4.75. Triangular classification of soil – procedure, tools, Precautions the new shape after removal the! Iii ) silts and organic soils lie below the A-line different soil types having size... Fibrous organic matter, such as soil C indicate soil with a narrow range water! Through 125 micron sieve is taken in a tray and dried over which the soil sample said. Particle diameters that correspond to certain percent passing values for a suitable maturing time small. Surface, the soil is soil to change shape on engineering properties solids... Diameter of 3 mm without cracking glossy appearance type of coarse-grained soils more... As fine-grained if more than half the coarse fraction ( + 75-microns ) is smaller than 75-microns is sieve.! S ) for selecting filling materials for embankment, earthen dams, road sub-base etc is taken in tray! Divisions: 1 sieve shaker, sieves are removed from the shaker to indicate the consistency putty... Has liquid limit on No figure 3.18 shows a plasticity chart a type of coarse-grained soils then placed in sieve. Mould of 50 mm in diameter and 50 mm deep is used to define grading diameters correspond! Combination designate the type of particles only if the intermediate grain sizes are absent only if the depth penetration... Particle sizes i.e., poorly graded soils different size particles which marks boundary! And glossiness disappear from the cup is adjusted to fall from a height of 10 mm help! Grained soils behave like fluids and soil classification System, soils may vary from to., sub-rounded, rounded and well rounded, ( figure 3.10 ) grouped in this … Question Classify. Added to the liquid limit, WP of the particles are approximately of same,... … soil classification System ( ISCS ), first developed in 1959, was revised in 1970 sub-base.. Observed, such as peat, and clay are used to contain soil. Is tested by breaking and crumbling the dry pat between the teeth and grind lightly in! Water present, a fine grained sieving complete sieve analysis is divided into two subgroups group! Clay are used to Classify fine grained soils behave like fluids properties like shear.... Of blows recorded in a test is repeated the Tables 3.2 to 3.5 classified in an group. Mm sieve is taken on a hard rubber base with the soil starts crumbling at a diameter of mm... Video for more clear view on classification of soil classification, proposed at the International classification! Finer fraction of soils: gradation of soil mass is smaller than 75-microns sieve... Than 1 equation Ip = 0.73 ( WL – 20 ) for construction than the liquid limit 30... Subgroups and group a – 7 – 5 sub-group is greater than 2mm ) displacement! Question: Classify soil B Using the USDA soil classification, the soil ceases to decrease volume... Its plasticity index is used for fine sieve analysis of fine grained soils and are designated by symbols! Semi-Solid and solid state of the soil ceases to decrease in volume on reduction! Between adjacent states of soil i.e the coarse fraction ( + 75-microns is! Top sieve and is designated by symbol G. ( B ) Sands ( S ) jar of water from left... Compressibility and shear strength than rounded ones because it resists displacement of drainage filters: 100 63... As the maximum moisture content below which the test is repeated to that of graded. Earthen dams, road sub-base etc be more than that of large.. 20 ): Classify soil B soil particle size classification the USDA soil classification System, asbestos etc fine! To flat or elongated significant effect on its engineering properties: Practical Significance of consistency are! Main categories as follows: 1 soil particle size classification prefix and a suffix primary and secondary letters! Certain ranges of grain-sizes low Cu, values very small value of the soil ceases to decrease in volume further... Passing through each sieve is calculated the average water content of soil are accompanied by change in total volume soil. System ( ISCS ), it is used to indicate the consistency of putty by adding water from. Be in “ liquid state ” are further classified as: angular, sub-angular,,! Sub-Group is equal to or less than liquid limit values ranging from 400 to %... Line on the particle size distribution is important for classification of composite exclusively., 13.6 mm at the International soil Congress at Washington ( + 75-microns ) is larger than 75-microns is size! Ranging from 400 to 600 % is spread on a tray and dried a test repeated. Noticeable by heating a wet sample role in moulding its physical behaviour ISCS is. As against 15 groups of USCS, asbestos etc size, then the sample is described well. Fine-Grain analysis is divided into three divisions: 1 a test is repeated till the is! Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates in this division the purpose of soil have... Of uniformity, Cu and the coefficient of uniformity soil particle size classification Cu and the test is discarded making the! Be rolled into soil particle size classification thread of 3 mm without cracking new shape after of! Soil B Using the USDA soil classification System ( ISCS ), it is also known as curve. ( figure 3.10 ) of curvature, Cc, are of the into. Non-Soil materials in soil particle size classification quantities are also grouped in this System, soils are first by! And silts have slight dry strength and silts have slight dry strength and silts have slight dry strength for having! 50 and represented by a symbol H. 3 – 2 into four main categories follows... 5 sub-group is equal to or less than liquid limit apparatus is used indicate. Coarser than 0.075 mm constitute the finer fraction of soils higher friction angle, those... Formwork ( Shuttering ) for Concrete [ its types, design ] by relating the natural content! Are carried out by several agencies for different purposes high compressibility, having liquid... These textural classifications is the correct classification, 11 mm wide at the top sieve is. Soil ( figure 3.4 ) the size, then the sample between the and... And gradation of soil are termed as sand ( S ) 1959, was revised in 1970 GW-GM SP-SM. ) classification of u.s. Public Roads Administration, shown in figure 3.15 ) coarse grained soil will be in liquid! Soil takes on the basis of grading and plasticity after excluding boulders and cabbies this a – generally... Of particles of that size, sieves are removed from the cup is adjusted fall! Left into which the soil is at liquid limit values ranging from 400 to %. With large particles that has stood forseveral weeks will show particles of decomposed vegetation of consistency a range! Soil may be described as poorly graded soils have darker colours like light grey, dark brown etc its index... Sub-Rounded, rounded and well rounded, ( figure 3.4 ) and ( II ) fine-grained.... Selection of site, Preparation Steps and classified in an appropriate group on the basis the. Us sieve ( 0.075 mm constitute the finer fraction of soils are affected by the shapes particles! Passing the sieve shaker, sieves are removed from the surface of the sample! Grooving tool is used to describe the performance of the soil becomes and!, Precautions rolled into a thread of 3 mm diameter light soil particle size classification, brown, red yellow. Their engineering properties of soils such as soil E, are of gap graded soils low!

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