The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948, is the result of the experience of the Second World War. With the end of that war and the creation of the United Nations, the international community has pledged never again to allow atrocities such as those of this conflict to happen again. World leaders have decided to complement the Charter of the United Nations with a roadmap to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere. The document they considered, which would later become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was taken up at the first session of the General Assembly in 1946. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is therefore a document that acts as a global roadmap for freedom and equality, protecting the rights of every individual everywhere. It was the first time that countries had agreed on the freedoms and rights that deserve universal protection, so that every individual could live his or her life freely, equally and with dignity. Work on the UDHR began in 1946 with a drafting committee composed of representatives from various countries, including the United States, Lebanon and China. The drafting committee was then expanded to include representatives of Australia, Chile, France, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, allowing the document to benefit from contributions from States from all regions and their different religious, political and cultural backgrounds. The first draft declaration was proposed in September 1948, with more than 50 Member States involved in its final preparation. With its resolution 217 A (III) of 10. In December 1948, the General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with eight nations that abstained but disagreed. The entire text of the UDHR was drafted in less than two years.
At a time when the world was divided into Eastern and Western blocs, it proved to be a daunting task to find common ground on what should be the essence of the document. Thus, the United States, which had been hostile to all military alliances for a century and a half, had become entangled in the largest system of alliances in the history of the world and, at its peak, included forty-four allies: twenty American republics, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, thirteen European NATO nations, Japan, and seven Asian nations (including Iraq). Despite many differences of opinion, the Allied leaders managed to reach some agreements in Potsdam. For example, negotiators confirmed the status of a demilitarized and disarmed Germany under four zones of Allied occupation. According to the minutes of the conference, there should be „complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany”; all aspects of German industry that could be used for military purposes had to be dismantled; all German military and paramilitary forces should be eliminated; and the production of all military equipment in Germany was prohibited. In addition, German society was to be democratically reshaped by repealing all discriminatory laws of the Nazi era and arresting and bringing to justice Germans considered „war criminals.” The German education and judicial system should be freed from authoritarian influence, and democratic political parties should be encouraged to participate in the administration of Germany at the local and state levels. However, the reconstitution of a German national government was postponed indefinitely, and the Allied Control Commission (composed of four occupying powers, the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union) would govern the country during the interregnum. The Potsdam Conference, which took place near Berlin from 17 July to 2 August 1945, was the last of the three major meetings of World War II.
It was attended by Prime Minister Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, the new US President Harry S. Truman and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain (replaced on 28th July by his successor Clement Attlee). On the 26th. In July, the leaders issued a statement calling for japan`s „unconditional surrender” and concealing the fact that they had privately agreed to let Japan keep its emperor. Otherwise, the conference focused on post-war Europe. A Council of Foreign Ministers was agreed, comprising the big three, as well as China and France. The German military administration was established with an Allied Central Control Board (the requirement that decisions be unanimous would later prove paralyzing). The Heads of State and Government reached various agreements on the German economy, with emphasis on the development of agriculture and non-military industry. The institutions that had controlled the economy under the Nazis were to be decentralized, but all of Germany would be treated as one economic entity. War criminals would be brought to justice.
Stalin`s request to define the German-Polish border was postponed to the peace treaty, but the conference agreed to his transfer of lands east of the Oder and Neisse rivers from Germany to Poland. In the case of reparations, a compromise was made on the basis of the exchange of capital goods from the western zone for raw materials from the east. He resolved a dispute but set the precedent for the management of the German economy by zone rather than globally, as the Western powers had hoped. Although post-war Europe dominated potsdam`s agenda, the war was lurking behind the scenes in the Pacific. Truman received news of the success of the atomic bomb test shortly after his arrival in Potsdam; He broke the news to Churchill, but only casually mentioned „a new weapon” to Stalin. Truman continued to ask Stalin for help against Japan, but he knew that if the bomb succeeded, Russian help would not be needed. In fact, the bomb would give the United States unprecedented power in the postwar world. .